Note: Please understand that this website is not affiliated with the Chanel company in any way, it is only a reference page for collectors and those who have enjoyed the Chanel fragrances.

The goal of this website is to show the present owners of the Chanel company how much we miss the discontinued classics and hopefully, if they see that there is enough interest and demand, they will bring back the perfume!

Please leave a comment below (for example: of why you liked the perfume, describe the scent, time period or age you wore it, who gave it to you or what occasion, any specific memories), who knows, perhaps someone from the company might see it.

Looking to Buy Vintage Fragrances?

Sunday, December 15, 2013

Vintage 1980s Chanel Dramming Fountain

Dramming refers to a technique for transferring a fragrance from a larger container to a smaller one (some websites call this "decanting".)

When stores have “dramming events” they are telling you that they have very large bottles of the fragrance, usually on display, that they will pour into a smaller one for you, usually in connection with special promotions. A dramming machine is equipped with a small spigot in the front to fill the miniatures with that would be given away during fragrance launches or promotions.







photos from ebay seller foundintime



It is interesting to note that on ebay, dramming bottles and machines are NOT permitted to be sold. Their policies are shown below:

Perfume testers and dramming bottles (which are bottles from which small quantities can be taken for supply to consumers as free samples), typically marked with the words 'demonstration' or 'not for sale', may not be listed on eBay. Also, you need to make sure that the essential and legally required information - such as, among others, the identity of the manufacturer or the person responsible for marketing the product, the composition of the product (content and list of ingredients), the use of the product (function and particular precautions to be observed in use) and preservation of the product (date of minimum durability) - is not missing from any permissible cosmetic or perfume product. Smell-alike perfumes may not be listed on eBay when they are compared to a well-known brand or scent. You may not list a perfume in a bottle other than the original bottle (decanters).

Make sure your listing follows these guidelines. If it doesn't, it may be removed and you may be subject to a range of other actions, including restrictions of your buying and selling privileges and suspension of your account.

What are the guidelines?

Allowed:

  • New, in-box full-sized cosmetics
  • Factice bottles (dummy merchandise bottles)
  • Collector items (empty bottles)


Restricted:

Perfumes in their original bottles including miniatures and samples can be listed as long as you make sure that the essential and legally required information (see Policy overview) is not missing and that the box is not missing if the bottle came in a special box

Homemade cosmetics can be listed, as long as you make sure they comply with country regulations

Smell-alike perfumes can be listed, as long as there is no reference to a brand in the item title, attributes or description and the item is not listed in a category for branded items. Also, you are not allowed to circumvent this rule by misspelling brand names or otherwise trying to refer or allude to a brand.

Not allowed:

Items that are not allowed include, but are not limited to:

  • Testers
  • Dramming bottles
  • Decanters
  • Used cosmetics
  • Replica perfumes or cosmetics

Friday, December 13, 2013

Vintage 1970s Chanel Factice Wall Display

Vintage 1970s Chanel Factice Wall Display. 

This astonishing wood & plexiglass fronted display stand would have been removed from the wall in which it was set when Chanel altered the size of the bottles which happened to coincide when barcoding came into play in the early 1980's, it stands at exactly 48cms tall by 38cms wide by 5cms deep ( 1ft 5" tall x 1ft 3" wide x 2" deep ), it is in absolutely superb condition save the odd, easy to remove dark mark to the painted frame.

Of the 5 parfum bottles, the 2x 7ml bottles stand at 5.5cm, 2x 14ml bottles stand at 7cm & the largest, which is set into the centre of the display stands at 8cm are full with intact black wax CC logo seal & the original Baudruchage membrane (though the larger bottle has a small amount of residue). Thanks to the gold mirrored walls to the case being set at 45 degree angle to the flat face of the case the case appears to hold more than the 5 bottles.

This item sold on ebay for approximately $1,959.24 US dollars on Sept. 25, 2013.







Photos and info from ebay seller sam_in_barbate 

Friday, November 1, 2013

Chanel No. 31 c1920 and Mademoiselle Chanel 31 rue Cambon c1945

Chanel No. 31: launched around 1921, created by Ernest Beaux.

Chanel No 31: possibly relaunched in 1933.


On Thursday, March 04, 1948, a U.S. federal trademark registration was filed for MADEMOISELLE CHANEL 31 RUE CAMBON by Chanel, Inc., NEW YORK.

First Use Anywhere: 2/17/1948
First Use In Commerce: 2/17/1948

The USPTO has given the MADEMOISELLE CHANEL 31 RUE CAMBON trademark serial number of 71551168 in 1950. The federal status of this trademark filing expired in 1992.

Mademoiselle Chanel No. 31 rue Cambon: launched in 1945. Became Coco Chanel's signature scent following the split from the Wertheimer's.

Unhappy with the quality of the perfumes that the Wertheimers were selling in her name through their newly minted Chanel, Inc. company in the USA, in 1945, Gabrielle took matters into her own hands.

After finding a small perfumer in Switzerland to produce her new perfumes using the last of her raw materials, she started a new perfume line on her own and began making a line of competitive perfumes, based on the originals. She named them "Mademoiselle Chanel No.5", , “Mademoiselle Chanel 31 rue Cambon”. The perfumer also made new versions of Ernest Beaux’s creations and renamed them “Mademoiselle Chanel Bois des Iles” and “Mademoiselle Chanel Cuir de Russie.”

Gabrielle Chanel gave lawyer, Rene de Chambrun several tiny bottles to give to his wife. She then asked if it were possible that she could make these up from her own home, and Chambrun declared that she could, provided that she could only give them as “gifts”. Chambrun’s wife enjoyed the perfume and a Russian “nose” also agreed and they both deemed the perfume “exquisite”. A Swiss perfumer was instructed by Gabrielle to make up a hundred bottles of her various perfumes.

To get around the trademark for the bottle design, she used cylindrical bottles with sloping shoulder and topped with disk shaped, ground glass stoppers adorned with a red circular label bearing a large C for Chanel. These same bottles (sans Chanel labels) were also used by D’Orsay for several of their perfumes. To decorate the bottles Gabrielle used a eye catching red label with white lettering, in a simplistic font, true to her style of minimalism.

She then started selling the perfumes in her boutique. Chambrun mistakenly believed that she was permitted to do so in her contract with the Wertheimers. The Wertheimers disagreed and claimed she was counterfeiting their product of which they owned the trademark names. In 1946, a lawsuit between her and the Wertheimers ensued. They came to her boutique and seized all of her bottles labeled "Mademoiselle Chanel No. 5". A new settlement was reached and, she was allowed to sell perfumes under the name "Mademoiselle Chanel" but was not allowed to use the number 5 in conjunction with any of her perfumes.

Keeping her promise to Chambrun and Maitre Chresteil, president of the French Bar Association, she prefixed each perfume with “Mademoiselle Chanel” and sent them as gifts to her friends, Hollywood’s own Samuel Goldwyn and owners of the two most prolific department stores in New York Neiman Marcus and Bernard Gimbel.

She ceased the production of these perfumes in 1947. Who was the Swiss perfumer? No one knows. Gabrielle never revealed his name publicly.

So what does it smell like? Notes of oakmoss, jasmine and roses. This was later reformulated by Henri Robert and christened Chanel No. 19 and launched in 1970 as a tribute to Coco Chanel on the occasion of her birthday.

This is a different perfume than the newly made 31 rue Cambon: created in 2007 by Jacques Polge and Christopher Sheldrake. Notes: Iris, rose, jasmine, sandalwood, bergamot, black pepper, patchouli, citrus, labdanum


The Best French Short Stories of ... and the Yearbook of the ... - Page 23, 1923:
"They were like that cursed perfume — mixture No. 31, which he got from Chanel's — which always floated round Gerard. . . . Ah, what a nuisance!"


Photo from Elysium.

Photo from Elysium.


Jasmin c1933

Jasmin by Chanel: launched in 1933, created by Ernest Beaux.


Chypre c1925

Chypre: launched in 1925, created by Ernest Beaux.


Ambre c1925

Ambre: launched in 1925, supposedly the first perfume made for Chanel by Ernest Beaux.


Friday, October 4, 2013

Info on Chanel Perfume Bottles

Chanel perfume bottles...
  • All Chanel perfumes appear in the signature Chanel bottle based on the original Sem design. 
  • All Chanel bottles have been made by Verreries Brosse and usually the bases will be embossed with a VB or BR logo. 
  • From the 1920s until 1951, the small O used in any perfume beginning with No. (number), will have a dot underneath it, after 1951, the dot disappears. 
  • From 1970-1987, all Chanel's pure parfums will be marked with the word Perfume underneath the fragrance's name. Starting in 1988, we see the word Parfum used instead.
  • Starting in 1987, the words Paris/New York are added to Eau de Parfums.
  • Black striped boxes used up until 1958.
  • The words "New York Distributor" was used from the late 1940s and into the 1950s.
  • The familiar black and gold cologne sprays were introduced in 1958, they were metered to expel 800 sprays in each bottle. Light and sturdy, designed by Chanel for the age of air travel.
  • Cologne and talc was used from 1939 - onwards

Decipher the numbers found on the extrait boxes:
  • No. 203 = 3 oz 
  • No. 202 = 2 oz
  • No. 201 = 1 oz
  • No. 200 = 1/2 oz
  • No. 210 = 1/4 oz
  • No. 375 = 1 1/2 oz (Eau de Cologne, not extrait)

Decipher the letters on the boxes to determine size of bottles:
  • T.T.P.M = 1/4 oz (Tres Tres Petit Modele/Very Very or Extra Extra Small)
  • T.P.M. = 1/2 oz (Tres Petit Modele/Very or Extra Small)
  • P.M. (Petit Modele/Small) = 1 oz 
  • M.M. (Moyen Modele/Medium) = 2 oz
  • G.M. (Grand Modele/Large) = 3 oz
  • T.G.M. (Tres Grand Modele/Very or Extra Large) = 4 oz

Fake Chanel Perfume ALERT!

Fake Chanel Perfumes on ebay this week:

http://www.ebay.com/itm/Vintage-Chanel-No-5-Perfume-1-oz-Sealed-Evaporated-RARE-/111181552219?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item19e2efda5b

Boxes are wrong, also look at terrible font on the boxes and on the label, it doesn't even line up correctly. Also bottle is not embossed "Chanel" on base like it should be.

Here is another fake Chanel perfume on ebay:

http://www.ebay.com/itm/VERY-OLD-VINTAGE-BOTTLE-OF-CHANEL-NO-5-WITH-STOPPER-APPROX-IMATELY-25-FULL-/151135599220?pt=fragrance&hash=item2330623a74

The label is completely wrong. Also bottle is not embossed "Chanel" on base like it should be.

Here is another fake Chanel:

http://www.ebay.com/itm/100-Authentic-VINTAGE-Chanel-No-5-Paris-Perfume-size-7-/350890139102?pt=fragrance&hash=item51b2ae9dde

The bottle and stopper are not correct. Also bottle is not embossed "Chanel" on base like it should be.

More Fake Chanel perfume, this time one of those crappy "Essence of Chanel" fake roll ons that were popular in the 1970s-1980s. These are not genuine Chanel perfumes.

http://www.ebay.com/itm/Vintage-Essense-of-Chanel-Roll-On-Perfume-/151133264442?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item23303e9a3a

Another fake perfume:

http://www.ebay.com/itm/VINTAGE-CHANEL-NO-5-1-OZ-BOTTLE-SEALED-/300975585882?pt=fragrance&hash=item46138afa5a

again in wrong bottle, not genuine.

Fake Chanel again!

http://www.ebay.com/itm/VINTAGE-CHANEL-NO-5-PERFUME-ALMOST-EMPTY-BOTTLE-MADE-IN-FRANCE-w-Maxfactor-com-/121179406297?pt=fragrance&hash=item1c36daffd9


Fake!

http://www.ebay.com/itm/VINTAGE-CHANEL-NO-5-PARFUM-PERFUME-BOTTLE-FULL-/370847378039?pt=fragrance&hash=item565839ea77

Fake bottle and label looks terrible!

Here's another one!

http://www.ebay.com/itm/Rare-Vintage-CHANEL-NO-5-Pure-Perfume-Extrait-1-4-oz-7-ml-Full-In-Box-/310570791968?pt=fragrance&hash=item484f763420


Thursday, October 3, 2013

Real Chanel No. 19 Poudre vs. Fake Chanel No. 19 Poudre

On MakeupAlley this week, a member named hadas had posted some pictures of a fake Chanel No. 19 Poudre perfume she purchased from ebay.

Fake Chanel No. 19 Poudre photos:

Notice there is no accent symbol over the E in the word Poudre. Also notice the color of the perfume, it appears to be a fluorescent artificial green color.

Notice the discoloration along the edge of the label.

The base of the bottle is not "engraved" with the correct information, it looks like it is printed on. Also it should have the R in a circle after Chanel on the bottom of the bottle and should say Chanel twice. 

Front, back, & underside pics of the fake (it came with a fancy 'outer sleeve'):




Discoloration along the collar on the neck where the perfume has leaked.

The REAL Chanel No. 19 Poudre pics are below:

See the information on the base of the bottle.


Monday, July 22, 2013

Sycamore vs. Sycomore

Sycamore: launched in 1930. Inspired by the sycamore tree and Coco Chanel's dream of the perfect woody perfume, a dry, balsamic scent without all of the feminine trappings of the other perfumes of the day.

So what did it smell like?

  • Top notes: violet
  • Middle notes: balsam
  • Base notes: tobacco

Presented in a tall clear glass rectangular bottle with sloping shoulders. Packaged in a wooden box which heralded the perfume's name.


Originally retailed for $45 in 1930 as seen in this 1930 ad for B. Altman & Co.



Discontinued, date unknown.


Sycomore. A rich-wood fragrance with a noble character -- like the Sycomore tree that inspired it -- created by Chanel Master Perfumer Jacques Polge in 2008. At the heart of the scent: Vetiver, with an elegant Sandalwood note and dashes of Cypress, Juniper and Pink Pepper, for an earthy, warm and enveloping, yet subtle presence.

Saturday, July 13, 2013

FAKE CHANEL ALERT!

Fake Chanel perfume on ebay

http://www.ebay.com/itm/Chanel-Vintage-Hard-to-Find-No-5-PERFUME-1-fl-oz-in-Both-Boxes-never-used-/221253431706?pt=fragrance&hash=item3383bb719a

Chanel never used this bottle for their perfume! The boxes are not right, the bottle is not the correct one and does not say Chanel in the glass. The screwcap is also wrong, it would not be used on a parfum bottle, only bottles that had screwcaps were eau de toilettes and eau de colognes, not parfum! Not to mention, but the screwcap logo would have been quite different, with the CC logo engraved and picked out in white and not raised with gold paint like the one in the auction.

Monday, June 24, 2013

Real Chanel No. 19 vs. Fake Chanel No. 19





Here is a fake Chanel No. 19 bottle (photo originally posted on basenotes).. this bottle was never use by Chanel, you can also see that the label is fake as well.

Real Bleu by Chanel vs. Fake Bleu by Chanel



So you want to by Bleu by Chanel...but you are afraid of buying a counterfeit...do yourself a favor and buy it at a Chanel's own website, a higher end department store, Sephora or Ulta. 

Ebay, flea markets, mall kiosks, craigslist, many online retailers and other retailers are known to sell counterfeits...save yourself the headache and doubts by buying at an authorized dealer only!!!

Or you already bought Bleu by Chanel...from eBay, a flea market, a mall kiosk,  website, craigslist, or some other retailer, or were given it as a gift ....and you have doubts as to its authenticity...well this tutorial will help you determine whether it is real or fake.


ebay member jmpassaniti wrote this:


"It appears the sales of counterfeit Bleu de Chanel are now epidemic on eBay.  I have encountered dozens of listings, most showing either a slightly faded box cover or a generic Chanel image that sell almost hourly on here.  After sharing notes with several buyers, including myself, it's a safe bet they are almost ALL fake counterfeits.

These are being sold by sellers in Michigan, New York, and California, and by some who have nearly 100% positive feedback, but the fragrance is undeniably a weak fake. Considering almost all of these auctions net the seller between $40-50 a bottle, with multiple sales a day this is quite a haul.

The cellophane wrap and box seem convincing enough.  The logo is raised, the box bottom has what appears to be a four digit lot or serial number embossed on the box, and the earlier counterfeit problems of spelling errors and unclean packaging appear to be resolved by the offshore manufacturer.  The real story doesn't become clear until you open the box and look at the bottle itself.



It has got a hazy film all over it, smudges and smears of what could be fragrance or fingerprint oil, and tiny fine scratch swirls that become evident in bright sunlight. The top shows a diagonal seam and the bottom is slightly irregular -- the sign of a cheap glass bottle manufacturing process. These bottles have been around, and not in a good way.

The bottle cap will be the ultimate test of real vs. fake.  Real Bleu de Chanel has a cap that holds in place with a magnet.  The phonies have a small seam line inside the cap which, by forcing the cap down, holds it in place.  If you set your cap on top of a real Chanel bottle, the magnets do all the work and the cap will automatically be held in place -AND- most important of all, the Chanel logo on top of the bottle will always spin into perfect alignment with the front/back of the bottle. You can see a demonstration of that on YouTube.  Just search for "Real vs. Fake Bleu de Chanel."

If your bottle cap doesn't do this, it's a fake/counterfeit.  The fakers sometimes use magnets, but the bottle caps don't align properly.  The most recent ones on eBay don't even bother with that -- they simply require the owner to press them down to hold them in place.

Ignore the Made in France vs. USA tips from around a year ago.  Legitimate Chanel fragrance can come from either their U.S. factory in New Jersey or from France.  Most of the fakes will say France just because people assume Chanel = France.

If you have a phony, don't even bother to spray it on yourself.  You have no idea what is in there, and would you spray a crime ring's fragrance on your skin?

Instead, file complaints.  The feedback system on eBay is notoriously poor for identifying fakes.  People are just happy to have received something in the mail quick for a good price that resembles the product they want.  Most have no idea they bought a phony.

Sellers promise refunds and some encourage you don't blow the whistle on their fake sales.  Occasionally, some are unwitting dupes themselves.

Chanel is among the most frequently counterfeited fragrances because of the high demand and the manufacturer's near-obsessive inventory control.  They destroy leftovers, old stock, and irregulars -- they don't sell it at wholesaler auctions.  I'd suspect the only real bottles of Chanel on here are those sold by individuals who have a single leftover bottle they don't like, one inherited from a family member who passed, or got one as a gift.  The ones selling a near-endless supply (check those feedbacks to see what they sold in the past) are immediately suspect, especially if they are selling in the $40-50 range for a 3.4oz bottle.

Yes, you'll pay $79 for an authentic bottle of this at the local department store, but for twice the price you'll actually get the real product.  The 1.7oz costs $59 -- around what you'll pay for the fake and the return postage to send it back (not to mention the time and hassle)."

View this YouTube tutorial:


Also this YouTube tutorial can be helpful:





FAKE CHANEL ALERT!!

Saturday, May 18, 2013

FAKE CHANEL PERFUME ALERT!

Some Fake Chanel Perfume on ebay this week -

Item numbers:
  • 151047107300 
  • 300904980281
  • 310570791968









Friday, May 17, 2013

Bois Noir c1987

Bois Noir: created in 1987 by Jacques Polge. However, it was only sold at the Chanel boutiques in France and was sold in two sizes, 4.2 oz and 8.4 oz. The bottle was clear glass, rectangular shaped and had a black stained wooden cap (not plastic).


Thursday, May 16, 2013

Examples of Negative Feedback for Fake Perfumes

Here are some examples of negative feedback for Chanel perfumes on ebay.

I copied and pasted these feedbacks directly from ebay and Toolhaus.org.




Negative feedback rating!!! WARNING ! ! ! COUNTERFEIT ASPECTS--SCENT, BOTTLE, PACKAGING
m80hall 124Teal star icon for feedback score in between 100 to 499) 
Mar-29-13 07:31
  • Reply by xguardian123 (Mar-29-13 14:10):
    We never sell anything other than genuine brand items. A+ reviews please read.
Chanel Coco Mademoiselle 3.4oz Women's Eau de Parfum (#121075350254)


Neutral feedback ratingBecause it's a Chanel, I had hoped it was made in France. Next time, specify.Buyer:
Nov-09-06 06:54
  • Reply by gifts-unlimited (Nov-10-06 18:50):
    Buyer assumed where it was made, I did not lie. All my Chanels are made in USA.
-- (#290039355980)



Positive feedback ratingThx May-04-13 12:35
  • Follow-up by perfumestash (May-05-13 11:37):
    This Item has Alien Particals Floating and does NOT smell like Chance. FAKE.
1Chanel Chance3.4oz Perfume for Woman (#261205802161)



Neutral feedback ratingshippin A++/ not same item as in description, was fake not to sellers knowledgeBuyer:
deevicx201 116Teal star icon for feedback score in between 100 to 499) 
Jan-02-13 08:36Feedback conversation
BRAND NEW & SEALED Chanel No. 5 3.4oz Women's Eau de Parfum BEST PRICE ON EBAY (#170961974634)

Chanel Perfume Testers - Yes They Are Faked!

This is a notice to anyone who sees a Chanel fragrance tester for sale, chances are that that bottle is a fake. Fake perfume manufacturers do make fake perfume testers and Chanel testers are one of the most commonly faked.

So when you see that cheap Chanel tester on ebay, look at the seller's feedback, look at their other auctions. If you see more than one for sale...it's a fake.

Chanel does NOT sell it's testers!!!! EVER!!!

Real Coco by Chanel vs. Fake Coco by Chanel

This guide was borrowed from abodaciousgal on flickr.


Front of Box
Left is authentic, right is fake won in an ebay auction

•Ink used for label and print on the box is substandard
•The font is smaller on the fake
•The ink has bled between many letters
•The gold on black lettering and imprints on the box are thicker and harder to read than the authentic
•The word vaporisateur is higher on the fake box
•The white logo box is larger on the fake


Back of Box
Left is authentic, right is fake won in an ebay auction

•The logo on the back is larger, less refined than on the authentic
•The multilingual translation for the word spray (vaporisateur) also has the word “natural” added to each line on to the fake even though the barcode (314589 1135305) and box numbers (113.530) are the same
•The Russian translation for the word spray is missing on the fake
•The list of ingredients has only seven on the fake (the first three and the last four) and not the 23 listed on the original
•In the list of ingredients, 5 of those listed which have parentheses, have typos where there is no space between the words (i.e. “AQUA(WATER)” and not “AQUA (WATER)” )
•The CHANEL Paris logo is missing
•The 92200 NEUILLY SUR SEINE underlined logo is missing
•There is a typo on the CHANEL NY logo with no space between CHANEL and INC.

Side of Box
Left is authentic, right is fake won in an ebay auction

•The color of the gold used in ink and on the box sides are yellowier/brassier colored than on the authentic
•The top flaps on the box sides are larger on the fake.

Bottom of the box
Left is authentic, right is fake won in an ebay auction

•The spacing of the letters is smaller (and not justified) than on the authentic
•The circular circle with an arrow symbol on the bottom of the box is upside down than on the authentic.

Front of Bottle
Left is authentic, right is fake won in an ebay auction

•The white logo imprinted on the black band is thicker
•The ink used is flaking/rubbing off where the authentic cannot be scratched or rubbed off
•The label is cut roughly around the edges
•The color of the gold on the label is yellowier/brassier colored than on the authentic
•The font of the label is larger and thicker than the authentic
•The color of the printing on the label is silver and not white

Side of Bottle
 
Bottle on left is authentic, right is fake won in an ebay auction

•The thickness of the bottle on the bottom and on the sides are thicker and less uniform than the shape of the authentic
•The color of the fake perfume is darker
•The scent of the fake is nothing like the musky authentic, it smells like aftershave!!!!


Top of Cap
Left is authentic, right is fake won in an ebay auction

•The bottle top is rougher, rounder and less clear than the authentic bottle.
•There are cast marks on the top of the fake bottle.

Closeup of Cap
Left is authentic, right is fake won in an ebay auction

•The bubble within the cap is smaller, less in depth and misshapen on the fake.

Back of Bottle
Left is authentic, right is fake won in an ebay auction

•The pump does not have a ball bearing nor is tube long enough to reach the bottom of the bottle as on an authentic bottle
•The authentic has the all the logos and registered trademarks on the reverse so they are visible from the back of the bottle and the fake has nothing
•The nozzle of the fake is taller than the authentic and crooked
•The color of the nozzle is lighter shade than the authentic.


Bottom of Bottle
Left is authentic, right is fake won in an ebay auction

•The etched product markings on the bottom of the bottle are lighter
•The CHANEL Inc logo does not have the registration mark
•The CHANEL Inc logo has New York, NY 10019 and not N.Y., N.Y. 10019 as on the authentic bottle
•The CHANEL Paris logo is missing
•The 92200 NEUILLY SUR SEINE underlined logo is missing